The first thing to understand about DNA is that it is double-stranded, while RNA is single-stranded. RNA is also a single-stranded molecule, and undergoes faster self-assembly. The second thing to understand is the difference in their pentose sugars, which allows them to self-assemble faster.
RNA is a single stranded molecule
While RNA is a single strandes molecule, it is capable of forming double stranded structures that are essential for its function. David Davies and Alexander Rich first discovered double stranded RNA in 1956. The discovery led to further studies that revealed a variety of functions performed by RNA. In fact, these structures may play a role in the origin of life.
DNA and RNA have a similar basic structure, but are very different from each other. RNA is shorter and single stranded, while DNA is long and double layered. It also has a higher order structure because of base pairing. Both DNA and RNA exist in a complex known as a ribonucleoprotein complex. Although the structures of these molecules are similar, RNA is more complex than DNA.
RNA molecules undergo faster self-assembly
RNA molecules undergo faster self-association when exposed to different conditions. For example, we have observed that P50N405 mixed with 5′-RNA6 has a higher apparent assembly rate than P50N405 alone. This is consistent with the fact that both N and P have different degree of rotational freedom. However, the kinetics of the assembly on 5′-RNA60 were slightly slower.
These results were also consistent with previous reports. RNA36 produced more visible aggregates than NegRNA12, whereas NegRNA12 formed less noticeable aggregates. Further, longer RNA aptamers showed that RNA36 produced a thin layer without fibrillar features. In the long run, RNA36 may be representative of early stages of aggregation, since its size was smaller than other RNA molecules.
RNA molecules have a pentose sugar
DNA and RNA molecules contain two kinds of sugars, deoxyribose and pyrimidine. The sugar phosphate backbones of these molecules run in opposite directions and are linked together with phosphodiester bonds. The sugar phosphate backbones of DNA and RNA molecules are called pentose and hexose, respectively. The pentose sugars in DNA and RNA are the precursors to incorporated nucleotides, while phosphodiester bonds connect two groups of sugars.
DNA and RNA molecules are composed of two kinds of pentose sugars, ribose and deoxyribose. They contain a hydroxyl group on the first carbon and a hydrogen on the second carbon. The ribose sugar in DNA and RNA molecules has a 1′ carbon atom, while deoxyribose is a 5′ prime carbon atom.
DNA is a double stranded molecule
DNA is a molecule composed of two strands, called a double helix. Each strand contains a chain of nucleotides (also known as bases), which are linked together by hydrogen bonds. The bases on opposing strands are joined by a specific pattern of hydrogen bonds. Each strand contains about one billion nucleotide bases. Despite its complexity, DNA remains an incredibly important part of life.
The mechanical properties of DNA are closely related to standard models of polymers. The Kratky-Porod worm-like chain model explains the flexibility of DNA. It is also compatible with Hooke’s law, which states that the bending force remains constant for segments with a persistence length less than one nanometer. In addition, DNA molecules often exhibit a preferred direction of bending due to their sequences. A random DNA sequence, however, will not exhibit a preferred bending direction.
RNA is a non-coding RNA
An RNA is a non-coding molecule that does not carry a genetic code. It is produced by a process called transcription, which enables it to be translated into proteins. The DISC2 RNA, which is not yet definitively proved to be non-coding, does not carry a genetic code. However, circumstantial evidence suggests that it does not contain any peptide-encoding potential. Moreover, it has a length of 15,178 nucleotides (nt) that is significantly longer than any known protein-encoding RNA. Its tetranucleotide repeats indicate that it is unlikely to be the 3′ end of a protein-encoding RNA, which is generally longer than the DISC2 RNA.
Besides the mRNA, miRNAs are also small RNAs that have an important role in gene regulation. These non-coding RNA molecules are found naturally in plants, animals, and some viruses. RNA polymerase II and III transcribe miRNAs from their precursors, which have five-nucleotide caps and a three-nucleotide tail.